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Rural Sociology and Development

Introduction
è Study of web of social relation - Sociology
è Youngest social science, emerged in 19th century from Europe to alleviate the then social problems and disorders.
è French sociologist August Comte presented sociology as the scientific study of social behavior and relationship in his book 'Positive Philosophy' in 1839 A.D. So he is considered as the father of sociology. Four founding fathers of sociology are August Comte, Emile Durkheim, Herbert Spencer, and Max Weber.
è Sociology emerged from Latin word 'Socious' and 'Logos' that means 'study or science of society'.
è Emile Durkheim: "Sociology is the study of social facts."
è Karl Marx: "In a broader sense, sociology is the study of social functions and social system."

Rural Sociology:
è The credit of Rural Sociology goes to America. The period from 1820 to 1920 in America is labeled as the age of exploitation. Due to the exploitation of rural merchants to farmers, the trend of moving into city was increased, to stop the unprecedented mobility, the development of Rural Sociology was most. Charles Sanderson, Burtherfield, Ernest Burnholme, John Morris Gillin, F.H. Gidding and Thomas Nixon Carver are some of the prominent persons to promote the development of Rural Sociology as academic subject.
è Former President Roosevelt established ‘Country life Commission’ in 1908. Which formed ‘Magna Charta’ of Rural Sociology. And the organization prepared questionnaire, and on the basis of answers from the rural respondents, they prepared report, which is called as Charter.
è In 1916 Prof. J.M. Gillette published book ‘Rural Sociology’ for university students. American Sociological Society formed Department of Rural Sociology in 1917 A.D.
è 1930s economic depression, World War II, supported by UNO, UNESCO, and FAO promoted the development of Rural Sociology. America, Europe, Japan to the present academic subject.
A)     “Rural Sociology is the study of human relationship in the rural environment.” – A.L. Bertrand
B)      “Rural sociology is the sociology of life in rural environment.” – D. Sanderson

Nature of Rural Sociology:
è Sociology is the big brother is Rural Sociology.
è Carr has said that, every social sciences have their own style, perspective and valid way to search an applied solution. Science goes with method not with subject matter.
è Rural Sociology as a part only of the broader domain of sociology and social anthropology.
è It is concerned with the rural life, relationship, behavior, customs, traditions, values and norms of rural kind.

Is Rural Sociology a Science?
Yes, because:
a)      Use of scientific method
b)      Description of reality and objectivity
c)       Universal explanation
d)      Cause-effect relationship
e)      Formulation of theory and its verification
f)       Prediction
g)      Positive Science

Limitation of the Scientific Study of Rural Sociology:
a)      Absence of laboratory
b)      Lack of objectivity
c)       Lack of long historical and institutional background
d)      Difficulty in drawing clear difference between rural and urban environment
e)      Interdependence of cause and effect
f)       Intangible social phenomenon
g)      Unpredictability
h)      Complexity of social data
i)        Lack of measuring the subject matter

Importance of Rural Sociology:
a)      Majority of world population live in rural areas
b)      Study of the rural social structure and specialty
c)       Rural development and social change
d)      Agriculture transformation
e)      Realistic study of rural society
f)       To understand the intimate relationship between land and man
g)      Helpful to formulate rural development policy
h)      Use of indigenous knowledge
i)        Study of the psychological approach of rural life

Relation of Rural Sociology with other Social Sciences:
a)      Rural sociology and Sociology
b)      Rural sociology and Anthropology
c)       Rural sociology and Economics
d)      Rural sociology and Political Science
e)      Rural sociology and Psychology

Scope of Rural Sociology
è Rural social life
è Rural social structure and institutions
è Rural culture, values and norms
è Rural Industries
è Effect of urbanization on rural life
è Rural infrastructures
è Rural community and its organs
è Rural finance
è Social change and control
è Rural natural resources
è  Rural poverty and unemployment
è Rural population
è Rural political system and leadership
è Rural planning and reconstructions
è Rural social process

Methods/Tools for the Study of Rural Sociology:
The term ‘tool’ is used here to refer to both material objects and concepts employed in research and scientific investigation in rural sociology. Method is basic of enquiry whereas tools are the instruments by means of which data are generated from the field.
a)      Cross-Sectional studies
If the study population covers only one segment of the population, the study is a cross sectional study. In this method investigator collects data and describes the phenomenon at a particular point of time. Takes single point of time.
b)      Longitudinal studies
If the study id continued for a number of periods on the same segments of the population, it is called longitudinal study. Longitudinal studies are made for detecting the changes in practices or indicators of the phenomenon. The study of changing attitude toward family life among Nepalese youths during a last decade is an example of a longitudinal study. In this method, the development of the problem over a period of time is described.
c)       Ex-post facto (Comparison)
Comparative study of social and psychological issues. Study with comparison of present phenomena or events to past phenomena. This focuses on presenting changes in contrast to past situation of the same area. This is considered third most popular and practical method according to Chitambar.
d)      Historical Method
Analyzing present situation according to past situation is Historical method.
Steps of Historical Method: i) Collection of data ii) Criticism of data iii) Presentation of data by time reference
This things should be considered while applying this method:
-          Insight
-          Historical perspective
-          Dispassionate attitude
-          Imaginative capacity
-          Capacity to select
-          Analysis capacity
-          Knowledge of the study area
e)      Case-Study Method
Developed in 19th century by Fredric Le Play (1806-1882). Case study is a method of exploring and analyzing the life of a social unit, be that unit a person, a family, an institution, a cultural group or even entire community.
Characteristics of Case Study:
-          Study of one unit
-          Intensive study of the problem
-          Individual study
-          Whole study
-          Historical study
-          Qualitative study
Types of Case Study:
-          Individual case study: Persons personal life study
-          Community case study: may be any specific group, situation etc.
f)       Field-Survey Method
This is an authorized observation of the phenomena in natural state of the local people for the collection of scientific & actual data. This method may apply questionnaire, interview and observation for primary data collection.
g)      Statistical Method
Statistical method is a method in which efforts are made to identify the problems with the help of facts and figures. The credit of using statistical method in rural sociology goes to Giddings. Statistics, if correct and rightly collected and properly tabulated, go a long way in finding out solution to may problems. Odum says “Statistics in science of numbering and measuring phenomena objectively and is essential too of research.” And Bogardus said “Social statistics is mathematics applied to human facts.”
h)      Observation Method
Concise Oxford Dictionary: “Accurate watching, nothing of phenomena as they occur nature with regard to cause and effect and mutual relationship.”
C.A. Moser: “In the strict sense observation implies the use of eyes rather than ears and the voice.”
Characteristics of Observation:
-          Eye affair
-          Intensive study
-          Direct method to study
-          Cause and effect relationship
-          Collection of primary data
Types of Observation:
a)      Non-controlled Observation
a.       Participant observation
b.      Non-participant observation
c.       Mixed observation
d.      Mass observation
b)      Controlled Observation
a.       Control over social phenomena
b.      Control over observer
i)        Rapid Rural Appraisal/Participatory Rural Appraisal (RRA/PRA)
S.W. Grandstaff: “RRA is a rapid, intensive and interactive process of learning about rural conditions from multidisciplinary perspective with a particular emphasis on tapping the local knowledge by explaining a range of methods, tools & techniques.”
Robert Chamber: “A growing family of approaches & methods to enable rural people to share, enhance and analyze their knowledge.”
j)        Questionnaire Method
Goode & Hatt: “In general the word questionnaire refers to a device of securing answers to questions by using a form which the respondents fills in himself.”
Bogardus: “A questionnaire is a list of questions sent to a number of persons for them to answer.”
Characteristics of Questionnaire:
-          Data collection techniques
-          Use in wide area
-          Printed form
-          Mailing process
-          Type of schedule
-          Self-administered
k)      Interview Method
M.N. Basu: “An interview can be defined as a meeting of persons face to face on some points.”
Denzin N.K.: “An interview is a face to face conversational exchange where one person elicits information form another person.”

Sociology of Rural Life
-          Geographical Environment
-          Social Environment
-          Cultural Environment
Achievements of Sociology of Rural Life:
-          Development of we feeling & integrity
-          Solution of personal problem through group effort
-          Discussion, participation & empowerment of rural people
-          Security to local culture, skill & knowledge
Rural Society & Social Structure

Concept of Folk Society:
è Group of people with great solidarity and homogeneity, informal behavior, based on agriculture etc…

Characteristics of Folk Society:
a)      Homogeneity
b)      Common Interest
c)       Illiterate
d)      Kinship System
e)      Self-reliance
f)       Small in size
g)      We-feeling
h)      Belief in black magic
i)        Labor division

Rural-Urban Continuum:
“There is no any clear demarcation line between urban and rural communities even if some dichotomy.” –MacIver

Characteristics of Rural Community:
a)      Common life
b)      Common rules and system
c)       Community sentiments
d)      Subsistence economy
e)      Social equality
f)       Close relation with nature
g)      Importance of family and neighborhood
·         High degree of homogeneity
·         Agriculture based
·         Self-sufficiency
·         Frequent social interaction
·         Informal social control
·         Harmony and solidarity

Major functions of Rural Community:
a)      Socialization
b)      Social control
c)       Participation
d)      Support
e)      Distribution
f)       Empowerment

Nepali Village in Global context:
a)      Natural beauty
b)      Historical and religious places
c)       Cultural diversity
d)      Diversity in climate
e)      Dependency
f)       Brain drain
g)      Landlocked
h)      Simple rural behavior and rusticity
i)        Periphery of periphery
j)        Origin place of poverty
k)      Dominance or typical rural environment

System of Village:
è A system indicates an orderly arrangements of parts
è A system may have its boundaries
è System is an abstract
è Social system refers to the orderly arrangement of parts or components of society namely; human interaction. Individuals in their process of interaction and influence each other. Their interrelationship and interaction assume a definite pattern which is called social system.

Characteristics of Village Social System:
a)      Meaningful interaction
b)      Based on social interaction
c)       Rural social system is unity
d)      Combination of sub-systems
e)      Related with cultural system
f)       Dynamic and balanced

Rural Social Process:
“The term social process refers to the repetitive forms of behavior which are commonly found in social life.” –Horton & Horton
Social Process is the interactions of many facts in social life. It includes; way of interaction, relationship establishment, way of behaving and repetition of social process as a whole.

Forms of Rural Social Processes:
a)      Co-operation
b)      Conflict
c)       Competition
d)      Adoption
e)      Assimilation
f)       Acculturation
g)      Sanskritization
h)      Differentiation
i)        Accommodation

Rural Hierarchy and Its Units:
a)      Caste
b)      Ethnicity
c)       Family
d)      Kinship
e)      Power structure (politics)
f)       Rural economy

Social Mobility
Social mobility refers to the movement from one social group to another; occupational mobility from the one occupation to another; and territorial mobility from rural to urban areas, from urban to rural areas or within the rural or urban areas.
“Social movement refers to movement up or down on social status.” –Horton & Hunt
“Social mobility is the movement of a person or persons from one social status to another.” –Wallace & Wallace

Determinant Factors of Social Mobility:
a)      Education
b)      Occupation
c)       Economic activities
d)      Religious institutions
e)      Politics
f)       Transportation and communication

Types of Social Mobility:
a)      According to P.A. Sorokin: i) Vertical mobility      ii) Horizontal mobility
A)     Open and close mobility
B)      Geographical mobility
C)      Inter-generational mobility

Importance and Consequences of Social Mobility:
a)      Increase in social prestige, power and status
b)      Creation of employment opportunities
c)       Acts as safety-value
d)      Increase in living standard
e)      Provide social justice
f)       Skills and capacity development
g)      Socio-economic transformation
h)      Formulation of open society

Class Structure:
A class is a group of people who have similar socio-economic status.
“A social class is a portion of community carried off from rest by social status.” –Max Weber
“A social class is stratum of people who are similar in power, wealth and prestige.” –Ellis

Characteristics of Class Structure:
a)      Open and dynamic in nature
b)      Competitive system
c)       Feeling of superiority and inferiority
d)      Universal
e)      Class consciousness
f)       Hierarchy of class
g)      Completely achieved
h)      Class struggle
i)        Equal life standard of the same class
j)        Economic group

Social Stratification
“Social stratification is a horizontal division of society into the high and low social units.” –Raymond W. Murry
Power, property and prestige of a person extensively contributes for social stratification and class creation.

Features of Social Stratification:
a)      It is an ancient process
b)      It is social
c)       It is in diverse form
d)      It is consequential
e)      Universal process

Importance of Social Stratification in Rural Development
-          Encourages to work hard
-          Competitive sentiment
-          Productive use of resources
-          Creation of different professions jobs
-          Reinforcement in skill, knowledge, and attitude
-          Social control
-          Proper utilization of resources
-          Contribution to social integration & structure
-          Increase in social status
-          Simplification

Social Movement
“A social movement is a collective effort to transform established relations with a particular society.” –Rudolf Herberl
“Organized group effort to generate or resist social change.” – Neil J. Smelser

Characteristics of Social Movement
-          Ideology based
-          Collective effort
-          Focus on action
-          Objective oriented
-          Oriented towards social change
-          Organizational framework
-          Strong sense of dedication
-          Certain subject matter and area

Components & Stages of Social Movement:
According to J.B. Chitambar:
a)      Social unrest
b)      Emergence of leadership
c)       Formation & Propagation of Ideology
d)      Program organization & strategies
e)      Capture of Power
f)       Institutionalization

Types of Social Movement
a)      Reform Movement
b)      Revolutionary Movement
c)       Reactionary/Revivalist  Movement
d)      Resistance Movement
e)      Utopian Movement

Overview of Agrarian Social Structure in Nepal
The dictionary meaning of ‘Agrarian’ is anything related to land, its management and distribution. It refers to the political movement in favor of change in conditions of property in land. It is called Agrarian.
Two Aspects of Agrarianism
i)        Technological Arrangement
ii)    Social Arrangement

Pattern of Agriculture in Nepal
-          More than 80% people are dependent on agriculture
-          0.16 and 0.115ha/person land holding in average
-          32% of total GDP is by agriculture
-          Before  A.D. 1980 production was export oriented and after 1990; import oriented
-          Mainstreaming of land reform issues but lack of implementation
-          More than 25% people are under poverty line instead of loss in agriculture
-          Formulation of Agriculture Perspective Plan (AAP) with objectives:
o   Expansion of irrigation facility
o   Market expansion through rural roads & transportation development
o   Increase in production by utilizing technology
o   Availability of high class seeds and fertilizers
But, lacks proper implementation

Cropping Pattern:
Mountain region covers 35% of total area in which only 2% is cultivable. Hilly region covers 42% and only 10% is suitable for agriculture. 23% land resides in Terai region & 40% is considered agriculturally suitable.
Mountain: Barley, Paddy, Maize, Wheat etc.
Hilly: Paddy, Maize, Wheat, Barley etc.
Terai: Paddy, Wheat, Maize, Barley, Tobacco, Potato, Sugarcane, Jut & Cotton etc.
APP- Irrigation, Transportation, Technology, and Improved Seeds/Fertilizer- Not properly implemented
32% of GDP is contributed by Agriculture
0.16 & 0.15 ha/person land holding- Land Reform 2021
Cereal Crops: Paddy, Maize, Barley, Wheat, Millet…
Cash Crops: Oil, Potato, Tobacco, Sugarcane, Jut, Cotton, Tea, Coffee…
Pulse Crops: Lentil
Fruits & Vegetables

Problems of Nepalese Agriculture:
-          Backward technology
-          Lack of irrigation
-          Lack of agriculture
-          Indebtedness of farmers
-          Lack of agriculture research
-          Unorganized agriculture market
-          Dual ownership of land/crops
-          Lack of transportation
-          Lack of store
-          Lack of seed & fertilizer

Land Tenure System in Nepal:
1)      Raikar-94%
2)      Birta-4%
3)      Guthi-2%
4)      Kipat
5)      Jagir
6)      Rakam
7)      Rajya

Land Reform:
Land reform is the process of scientific distribution of land according to the changing time & situation.
Prof. Gunnar Mrida: Land reform is institutional reorganization of relation between lands & man its control.
Mainly Land reform Includes:
-          Social justice on land holding & distribution
-          Increase in agriculture productivity
-          Decision in use of land
-          Agriculture & non-agriculture structure
-          Institutional development for land reform
25% of people are landless
3% people hold 17% land and 17% people own 3% land

Land Reform Act 1964 (2021 B.S.)
-          Enacted from Mangshir 1 2021
Objectives:
-          Establishment of exploitation less society
-          Justifiable distribution of land and income received by land
-          Increase in living standard of farmers
-          To maintain social justice
-          Transformation of passive labor & capital from agriculture to industrial sector
-          Utilization of modern technology
-          Creation of appropriate environment for socio-economic development

Features of Land Reform Act 1964
-          Tenancy right
-          Fixation of rent
-          Ceiling on land ownership
-          Acquisition of land over ceiling
-          Redistribution of surplus land
-          Agriculture debt and interest rate
-          Compulsory saving
-          Abolition of diverse land system

Kamaiya Free Movement:
Government of Nepal freed 83 thousand 3hundered 75 Kamaiyas in 2057 Shrawan 1. But feeling lack of economic security and basic needs some of them returned to be Kamaiya. Kamaiya system is a kind of labor system in which the later generation are compelled to work in merchants’ home because of their debt by older generation. This system is dominantly found in Terai region of Nepal.

Revolutionary Land Reform Act 2058
-          5th amendment of land reform act 1964
Provision:
Region
Land Lords
Tenants
Agriculture
Homestead
Agriculture
Homestead
Terai
10 Bigha
1 Bigha
4 Bigha
1 Bigha
Kathmandu
25 Ropani
5 Ropani
10 Ropani
5 Ropani
Hill
70 Ropani
5 Ropani
20 Ropani
5 Ropani

Some aspects of rapid implementation:
o   Recent implementation of revolutionary land reform
o   Land ownership to women
o   Land to freed Kamaiya by end of 2058 Magh & settlement

Concept & Approaches of Development
Concept & meaning of Development
Development is a multi-dimensional approach. It is the process of maximizing positive happiness of people & making human life valuable, self-sustaining. It is ever continuous process.
“Development is a state of mind, a tendency, a direction rather than a fixed goal, it is a rate of change in particular direction.” – Edward W. Widener
“Development as the fruitful betterment of individual in aspects.” – Dictionary of Sociology

Meaning of Rural Development:
Rural development is the dynamic process of positive change in agriculture based area, it can be analyzed as:
-          A Process: Development of agriculture related aspects & human resources.
-          A Phenomenon: Interaction of physical, environmental, technological, economic & social aspects of rural area.
-          A Strategy: Rural socio-economic development strategy.
“Rural development is transformation system of traditional culture to modern science & technology.”–Ensminger

Objective of Rural Development:
-          To enhance production & productivity
-          Socio-economic equality
-          Increase in community participation
-          Ecological balance & growth
-          Balance in socio-economic development
-          Employment opportunities

Core Values of Rural Development:


Isosceles Triangle: Core Values of Rural Development
 
Text Box: Freedom
Text Box: Basic NeedsText Box: Self-esteem                                                                                




Significance of Rural Development:
-          To solve rural problem
-          Social change
-          Best utilization of resources
-          Development of infrastructures
-          Sources of employment & livelihood
-          Increase in national income
-          Food & fodder
-          Industrial development
-          International trade
-          Capital formation & investment
-          Political stability

Text Box: PowerlessnessProblems of Rural Development:


 
Text Box: Isolation
Text Box: Vulnerability





























Text Box: Physical weakness
Text Box: Poverty
Robert Chamber’s view:
-          Lack of health, education facilities
-          Less economic activities
-          Geographical difficulties
-          Population growth
-          Subsistence farming
-          Uncontrolled migration
-          Environmental degradation
-          Scattered settlement
-          Lack of market
-          Lack of agriculture debt
-          Lack of people’s participation
-          Unequal distribution of land

Mitigating Measures of Rural Development Problems:
-          Supply of basic needs
-          Special economic aid
-          Settlement management
-          Migration control
-          Decentralization
-          Sustainability in development
-          Action oriented plan
-          Eco-friendly development
-          Alternative employment

State-Centered Development:
-          State as welfare & conscious factor of development. State plays active role for plan formulation to implementation & economic development.
-          Open & free market is profit-oriented, in this situation state promotes infrastructure construction, socio-cultural, industrial & economic development, which is as compulsion in less developed nations.
-          State’s control over means & resources of production. It invests in social infrastructures (schools, universities, hospitals…) and welfare orientation.
-          State as the security provider for poor & marginalized. Equal distribution of means & resources.
-          Directs the role of private sectors in production rather than rejection.
-          State plays role to decrease the intervention of privatization & globalization to the local market.
-          State’s full control over means & resources, so the chance of least exploitation. State intervenes through positive discrimination and reservation.
-          State’s role is as compulsion in development activities.
-          Centralized planning system.
-          Enacted in Nepal from 1960s.
Importance of State-led Development Strategy in Rural Development:
-          Rural poverty alleviation
-          To fill up the gap between rural & urban area
-          Accommodation of dual economy & mainstreaming rural issues
-          Employment opportunities
-          Participation of public, private & government in development
-          Agriculture modernization
-          Scientific land reform
-          Decrease in social evils
-          Political stability
-          Capital formation & mobilization
-          Promotion & protection of local cultures

Weaknesses of State led Development Strategy:
-          Lack of people’s participation in decision making
-          Unnecessary control
-          Economic irregularity
-          Over staffing
-          Monopoly
-          Lack of commitment
-          Corruption
-          External intervention on local development
-          Only myth of decentralization
-          Partial treatment in punishment & rewards

Market Centered Development Strategy:
-          Open market (liberalization, privatization & globalization)
-          Profit oriented, capital oriented
-          Market as economic mobilizer
-          Surplus accumulation & reinvestment
-          Competition, benefit for limited people
-          Government as facilitator
-          Emphasis of physical property
-          Consumers are supreme
-          Unbiased & private entrepreneurship
Practiced in Nepal only after 1980s & 2007 B.S. democracy.

Importance of Market-led Development in Rural Development:
-          Open & competitive market
-          Promotion of export oriented goods & services
-          Priority to private & international investment
-          Employment opportunities
-          Qualitative goods & services in reliable price
-          Rapid economic growth
-          Modernization of agriculture

Weaknesses of Market-led Development Strategy:
-          Lack of responsibility to general public
-          Market oriented development strategy
-          Gap between poor & rich
-          Dominance & exploitation of elites
-          Less appropriate for less developed societies
-          Risk to local production & cultures
-          Dominance of consumerist & utilitarian tendency
-          Market monopoly

NGO-Centered Development Strategy:
After the World War II, the pace of modernization to the less developed countries was introduced in 1950s. Failure of Market-led development strategy promoted NGO centered development strategy, which is believed to have direct relation with marginalized and deprived people. This mainly focuses in basic needs facilitation. During 1970s the importance of this strategy captured attention of leaders & facilitators.

Characteristics of NGO-led Development Strategy:
-          Participatory development planning
-          Development for the people by the people
-          Economic & technical assistance
-          Service & welfare oriented
-          Income generating & empowerment programs
-          Development group formation & mobilization
-          Awareness creation
-          Focus on sidelined, deprived, marginalized & poor people
-          Bottom-up approach
-          Focus group program

Assumptions of NGO-led Development:
-          Welfare & service orientation
-          Local demand, people’s participation, empowerment & sustainability centered
-          Development for people
-          Mainstreaming backward groups
-          Responsibility division
-          Focus in local people’s needs & demands
-          Active involvement of implementers & consumers
-          Equitable, gender & eco-friendly development
-          Small to large area development

Working Areas of NGOs:
-          Agriculture
-          Drinking water
-          Irrigation
-          Human right
-          Education/health
-          Forest/soil conservation
-          Environment protection
-          Infrastructures development
-          Awareness creation
-          Entrepreneurship
Weaknesses of NGOs Centered Development:
-          Intervention & penetration/corruption
-          Familization
-          Problems of sustainability
-          Lack of co-ordination
-          Problem of monitoring & evaluation
-          Lack of accountability & transparency
-          Limited resources & uncertainty of fund
-          Donor derived
-          Failure to use acceptable technology
-          Ignorance of sensible local issues
-          No systematic record
-          Lack of commitment & autonomous

People-Centered Development Strategy:
Due to the failure of pervious theories, to concern the wiling of people, the people centered development approach was established as bottom up approach. This mainly focuses in people’s participation in each & every steps & aspects of development activities. This is self-sufficiency & empowerment of majority.

Key Points of People Centered Development:
-          People as the source of knowledge & skills
-          People are active participants
-          Participatory planning
-          Development by people
-          Group mobilization
-          Co-operation
-          High possibility of equity & participation
-          Cheap but effective
-          Bottom-up approach
-          Sustainability
-          State as facilitator
** Putting people first**
**Putting the last first**
**Listen to the people**

Assumptions of People Centered Development Approach:
a)      Killer Assumptions:
o   People are stupid and they are unable to think rationally, but they are willing to change; they therefore, need external help and support.
o   People or poor or community can easily be reached out by development agents who don’t belong to the community.
o   The notions/concepts of people and community are homogenous concepts that should not be divided in terms of caste/ethnicity, class and gender. If the issue of poverty is adequately addressed, it would automatically take care of problems related to caste/ethnicity, class and gender.
o   Local level organizations, including the traditional or indigenous ones, can be evolved to cater to the needs and interests of capitalism; the social economy should be dismantled.
o   Decision making process should be handover from the state, private and market to the people.
b)      Pro-people Assumptions:
o   Development should be by the people, not for or with the people.
o   People should be actors/masters/experts/producers, not objects/subjects/audience/consumer of development.
o   NGOs can work as an intermediately among the people, state and market as the latter two are not friendly to the people without such intermediaries. This statement is partly true but in practice it has been mostly false.
o   Many people are poor and illiterate but not irrational and dumb as far as their individual or common good is concerned.
o   The concept of community is very much alive and useful for poverty alleviation programs.
o   Production is critically important to the goals of human well-being and self-realization.
o   Creative initiative of people is the primary development resources.

Importance of People Centered Development Strategy:
-          Efficiency
-          Effectiveness
-          Increase in skill & ability
-          Development of self-reliance
-          Holistic coverage
-          Local resources mobilization
-          People’s participation
-          Democracy based
-          Increase in awareness
-          Environmental conservation
-          Promotion of local industries

Limitations of People Centered Development:
-          Dominance of elites
-          Possibility of biasness
-          Limitation in slogan
-          Lack of systematic & rational knowledge
-          Communal violence
-          People are actors of development as myth
-          People’s incapability in all aspects
-          Problem in plan formulation
-          Lack of self-help program
-          Chance of corruption
-          Hinders capitalism & globalization

Culture & Development
“Culture is the complex whole which includes knowledge, beliefs, art, morals, law, customs, and any other capabilities acquired by men as a member of a society.” –E.B. Tylor
According to UNESCO Report (1995) culture is the major base of development. Report highlights following arguments on culture regarding to development:
-          Culture is the foundation of utilizer
-          Culture is foundation of human development
-          Culture & development are interconnected subjects
-          Culture is taken as the successive base of human development & empowerment
-          Members of the community can achieve their self-esteem & dignity through culture
Christian protestant culture, norms & values in comparison to catholic. Max Weber stated culture as the intelligence of brain. Behaviors of a person depends on his culture. Western culture believes; life is better than death, risk, reward & opportunity as life lessons. Karl Marx argued, culture as the result of economic factor. In Nepal, caste hierarchy and labor division is the best example of culture in relation to development.

Culture can be matter of development due to following reasons:
-          Culture as a constitutive part of development
-          Economically remunerative cultural activities & objectives
-          Culture & political participations (Muslim)
-          Social solidarity & association
-          Cultural sites, recollection & past heritages

-          Culture influences on value formation & evolution
-          Culture as the means to transformation
-          Culture as attitude, knowledge & practice

F  Religious beliefs
F  Time consciousness
F  Legal biasness
F  Economy & education
F  Value of work
F  Modernity acceptance
F  Wealth orientation
F  Authority to leadership/work etc.

People Responsive Development
Development activities that are devoted towards particular agents or people such as disadvantaged groups. Targeted group of people is considered as pivot in development process. Redistribution with growth is the main proposition of people responsive development mechanism. Mainly this approach consists:
-          Feel the needs of the people
-          Community participation
-          Development by the people not with the people
-          People are agents of development
-          Development with the people’s inner view
Culture Friendly Development
It is a new concept in development discourse. According to this approach culture is a matter of development & actual source of needs identification. Culture is way to life. It is defined as lubricants, oil & energy of transformation. So, it should be preserved, if it is seen as a progressive form. In short this includes:
-          Development with culture
-          Preservation of local culture & sub-culture
-          Use of indigenous knowledge in development
-          Respect & address the cultural elements

Assumptions of People Responsive/Culture friendly Development:
-          Active people’s participation
-          Equal distribution of returns
-          Development by the people
-          Conservation & protection of local culture
-          Respect the people’s feeling
-          To enhance the level of living standard, equality, justice & empowerment
-          Inclusive development policy
-          Respect the religious activities
-          Development based on actual needs of local community
-          People centered development

Importance of People Responsive/Culture friendly Development:
-          Culture friendly development is sustainable
-          Culture as the means of empowerment
-          Cultural freedom results creativity
-          Priority of local means, resources & culture
-          People’s participation in development work
-          Protection of cultural heritages
-          Democratic, self-dependent development
-          Inclusive green revolution

Exogenous Development
Exogenous development is that kind of development, in which the local peoples are organized and mobilized, that concerns about the socio-cultural diversity. This focuses in private, public & government partnership. Dominance of external expertise in policy, objectivity & strategy formulation. The ultimate aim of this kind of model is to end the vicious circle of poverty. Modernization in capital, technology & labor power are the key elements of this model. Donors or investors are the masters & locals are only consumers. Priority to education, health, income, production, human rights equality, inclusiveness & many more.

Features of Exogenous Development
-          Governed/directed & controlled by external agents
-          Dominance of external experts, specialists
-          Mobilization of external, internal resources
-          Short-term in nature
-          Based on growth in development
-          Co-action with local people
-          Priority to living standard
-          Dependent to donor agent
-          External technology, capital & human resources/power
-          Less priority to local knowledge, skills & culture
-          Mainly western model of development

Importance of Exogenous Development
-          Awareness creation, skill development
-          Means of interaction between backward (locales) & donors
-          Decrease in inequality & pressure to local dwellers
-          Green revolution in agriculture with technology & finance
-          Employment creation & economic modernization
-          Mainstreaming backward, marginalized & deprived
-          Poverty alleviation & people’s participation
-          Local leadership development, organization, mobilization & problems
-          International technology & diplomacy

Challenges of Exogenous Development
-          Misuse of local resources & culture
-          Increase in dependency
-          Unequal distribution of development fruits
-          Exploitation by foreign country
-          Risk to local indigenous knowledge & skills
-          Loss of intellectual property right
-          Imbalance in environment
-          Increase in social evils
-          It doesn’t give fishing technique but fish

Indigenous Development
 Indigenous development is that kind of development, in which development activities are based on local culture, rituals, technology & mechanism. It depends on concept of self-dependence. Priority to local knowledge, skills and manpower is the main theme of the approach.

Characteristics of Indigenous Development:
-          Based on local indigenous knowledge
-          Bottom up approach
-          People’s initiative process
-          Based on native resources & technology
-          Based on self-help group
-          Development with own identity
-          Participation of local people in decision making
-          Multidimensional in nature
-          Based on day-to-day experience of local people

Importance of Indigenous Development
-          Capacity building of local people
-          People-responsive & culture friendly
-          Social mobilization, people’s participation & empowerment based
-          Bio-diversity conservation
-          Proper information about resources & means
-          Protection of indigenous knowledge, skills & culture
-          Sustainability in development
-          Globalization
-          Self-dependence
-          Targeted to backward people

Challenges of Indigenous Development
-          Development of traditionalism
-          Less employment opportunities
-          Lack of huge amount of capital
-          No competition in development
-          Static change in socio-economic condition
-          Lack of modern technology & equipment
-          Lack of foreign aid etc.

Self-Help Development
A self-help program is a small, economically homogenous & affinity group of rural poor, voluntarily formed, to save & mutually agree to contribute to a common fund, to be lent to its members as per group decision for their socio-economic development.
This is the search for an individual path toward development suited to the traditions of each particular country as an alternative to the growth & world market-oriented development strategy of eastern states.

Features of Self-Help Group:
-          Equal status of membership
-          Voluntarily membership
-          Participatory planning
-          Education & training
-          Resource mobilization
-          Rotational leadership
-          Socially  viable
-          Self-management
-          Self-evaluation
-          Organizational system
-          Economic right to concerned group
-          Continuous learning process

Self-Reliance Development
This concept was emerged in 1950s in India that Mahatma Gandhi used in anti-English movement. This, later, is followed by Julius Nyere in 60s of Tanzania. But this only developed as an approach after 1970s in the discussion about the third worlds’ dependency in Latin America.
This approach focuses more on qualitative lifestyle such as; income, health, knowledge, participation, security, capacity, right, entitlement, freedom, confidence etc.
According to Dr. Y. Nayudarmma “Self-reliance implies self-competitive, resourcefulness, problem solving capacity, the ability to discern & wisdom to use knowledge.”
-          Production for basic need get priorities over others
-          Mass participation can be ensured
-          Local factors can be better utilized
-          Creativity can be stimulated
-          Local conditions can be more compatible
-          Diversity of development can be promoted
-          Ability to resist dependency increases
-          Mal-development can be corrected

Participative & Participatory Development
People centered development activities, plan formulation to implementation is done in full participation of the people. Bottom-up approach is prioritized
PRA has been widely used for participatory development but by its nature & content PRA seeks to promote participation in development.
Participatory Development
Participation in development
It approaches conventional project practice in a more participatory & sensitive manner.
It entails genuine efforts to engage in practices that openly & radically encourage people’s participation.
It is introduced within the pre-determined project framework.
It seems from the understanding that poverty is caused by structural factors. It attempts to alter some of the causes that lead to poverty.
It is a top-down from of participation in the sense that the management of the project defines where, when & how much the people can participate.
It is a bottom-up approach of participation in the sense that the local people have full control over the process & the project provides necessary flexibility.
It is more prevalent practice & dominant in terms of resource available.
It is more prevalent with NGOs than with the government.
Sustainability of development depends on the aid helping people to act for their own development. Participation is concerned from ‘token involvement of people’ to ‘autonomous decision making by popular organization at local level’.
“People’s participation is conceptually integrated with redistribution of economic & political power is the process of development & is therefore subject to value judgment.” – M.R. Ghomeny
As a conclusion, Participation means:
-          Voluntary contribution of people
-          Process of increasing responsibility & awareness
-          Active & unbiased (inclusive)
-          Self-determined change

Importance of Participative & Participatory Development in Rural development:
“Rural development is impossible if it doesn’t take place in the mind of rural men.” –A.K. Carenross
-          Increase in efficiency
-          Effectiveness
-          Self-reliance
-          Coverage
-          Sustainability
-          Inclusive
-          Mass orientation
-          Empowerment

Constraints of Participation:
-          Bureaucracy oriented development process & administration
-          Rigid socio-cultural structure
-          Political interference
-          Lack of empowering local organization
-          Gender discrimination, poverty, linguistic problem etc.

Participatory Development Process:
-          Development by local people & mobilization, utilization of local means and resources. (Self-centered)
-          Bottom-up approach
-          Local peoples are sole & whole of the process
This is the process of self-dependence & empowerment of the local people by participating in each & every steps of project cycle.
Participation must be in:
-          Problem identification, information collection, research & evaluation process
-          Concept, plan creation & appraisal of future plan
-          Technological research & policy analysis
-          Resource, formulation, mobilization, program management, implementation & evaluation
-          profit (fruit) distribution

Globalization & Localization
Globalization is the process of mainstreaming the national market in international market. Globalization is a free movement of goods, services, people, capital & information across national boundaries.
G - Goods & services
L – Localization & globalization
O – Opportunities
B – Balance
A – Aid through trade
L – Liberalization
I – Interdependency
Z/S - Satisfaction
A - Advancement
T – Technology transfer
I – Instrument
O – Optimization
N – Network

Features of Globalization:
-          Capital, technology, culture, labor, information… are as national, international & regional agenda
-          Attraction through competition & opportunity
-          Consumption of qualitative goods
-          Dominance of rich, elites & developed nations
-          National change in means ownership
Liberalization & marketization

Responsible Agencies for Globalization:
-          International organizations (World Bank, IMF, UNDP …)
-          Foreign aid
-          Means of communication
-          Tourism & tourists
-          Education
-          Human right concept
-          Multinational companies

Key Aspects of Globalization:
-          Open & free movement of goods & services
-          Reduce taxation in trade
-          Regard international investment as national investment
-          World Trade Organization as its head
-          Transfer of technology
-          Priority to invest in international market

Strengths of Globalization:
-          Open market
-          Economic growth
-          Increase in work efficiency
-          Affordable price & quality secures consumers’ right
-          Specialization
-          Reduces traditional thoughts
-          Attraction to foreign investment
-          Increase in employment opportunities
-          Human right, democracy, law, good governance etc.
-          Consumerism

Weaknesses of Globalization:
-          Unequal competition (developed vs. underdeveloped)
-          Dominance to local knowledge, skill & technology
-          International intervention
-          Dependency and poverty
-          Lack of welfare
-          Intervention in national integration
-          Exploitation of valuable resources
-          Economic expansionism

Globalization in Nepal:
Globalization in Nepal appeared in 1978 by Structural Adjustment Program (SAP) implementation by IMF. This mainly focuses in Balance in Payment in Nepal.
Liberalization & market economy attracted multinational companies’ investment after 1990’s (2046) reestablishment of democracy. Open market policy, labor movement increased globalization. IT as the means for globalization in education, economy, health & other socio-economic aspects.
Partnership between government, public & private was prioritized. And in 2004 Nepal became one of the member of WTO.

Positive aspects of Globalization in Nepal:
-          Expansion of science & technology
-          Modernization of education, health, tourism etc.
-          International investment in infrastructure development
-          Development of information technology
-          Globalization of Nepali goods & services
-          Employment opportunities & increase in National Income

Negative Aspects of Globalization in Nepal:
-          Unbalance in payment
-          Abolition of internal production
-          Exploitation of elites
-          Government may become weak
-          Environmental exploitation
-          Intervention to local culture, knowledge & technology
-          Increase in dependency
-          Increase in social evils
-          External political & economic intervention
Mitigating Measures of Negative aspects of Globalization:
-          Sustainability in development
-          Use of renewable resources
-          Consumption of local products
-          Industrial employment creation
-          Promotion of indigenous skills & knowledge
-          Promotion of tourism & foreign currency
-          Food security
-          Mainstreaming backward
-          Subsidies provision

Localization:
‘Think Globally – Act Locally’
Localization is a concept that promotes & prioritize locally available means & resources for local consumption & utilization. It focuses in mobilization of local manpower, human resources, natural resources, local techniques, tools & skills to make rural market able to compete with global products.
Participation of local people in market & other developmental work is must, they contribute in each steps of every activities. Conservation & promotion of local culture, knowledge & skills is the theme of this concept. In Nepal, local self-governance act-2055 insists localization in real sense. Likewise, Interim Constitution 2062/63 has focused in decentralization, localization. Finally, localization promotes utilization of local culture, knowledge to compete with global market with local leadership & independently, spontaneous market.

Essential elements of Localization:
-          Education & awareness in local level
-          Development of local technology
-          Self-employment creation
-          Program for rural development
-          Access, participation of local people
-          Conservation of local language, culture, skills and knowledge …

Positive aspects of Localization:
-          Local production, consumption and solution to local problems & evils
-          Priority of local means & resources in development
-          Conservation of local culture, organization & livelihood…
-          Priority to backward, ethnic groups
-          Right to local people over resources
-          Reducing poverty
-          Rural-oriented planning & development activities
-          People centered investment
-          Local needs & demands
-          Optimum utilization of resources
-          Local leadership development
-          Development for people by people
-          Sustainability in development
-          Responsiveness of local people

Negative Aspects of Localization:
-          Traditionalism
-          Lack of competency
-          Regional backwardness
-          Intervention if resources, capital lacks
-          Priorities by globalization may reduce
-          Subsistence rather the growth oriented
-          Protective than competitive
-          Dominance of local elites
-          Labor oriented technology doesn’t allows fast paced development
-          Lack of global market information
-          Lack of new invention
-          Possibility of misuse/no use of resources

Globalization & Localization should focus on these aspects for development process:
-          Human resources development
-          Regional balance
-          Competitiveness
-          Global peace
-          Equality & equity
-          Poverty alleviation
-          Eco-friendly development
-          Cost effective production
-          Priority to invention of new technology
-          Knowledge based society
-          Knowledge based industry
-          Political stability
-          Population management
-          Social integration
-          Capacity building
-          Social justice
-          Inclusive development
-          Economic development

Rural Community Development
“A rural community may be defined as a group of people permanently residing in a definite geographical area who, having developed a certain community consciousness & cultural, social & economic relations feel that they are separate from other communities.” – J.H., Kolb & Brunner

Characteristics of Rural Community:
-          Definite locations
-          Common life
-          Common rules & system
-          Community sentiment
-          Subsistence economy
-          Social equality
-          Close relation with nature
-          Importance to family & neighborhood

Meaning & Concept of Rural Community Development
The concept of rural community development was emerged in 1940s. Then, British government applied firstly in Ghana & the government had mentioned “Community development as a process intended to mobilize the labor or rural & urban communities in support of national government objectives to build social & physical infrastructures & increase in self-reliance.”
According to UN “Community development is a process designed to create condition of economic & social progress for whole of the community with its active participation & fullest possible reliance on community’s initiative.”
As a whole the characteristics are as follows:
-          Establishment of a co-ordination team at the local level
-          Regular contact & dialogue between the community development team & the villagers
-          Formation of local groups at the village level
Y.C. James Yen has mentioned the following opinion for rural community development:
-          Go to the people
-          Live with them, learn from them
-          Plan with the people, work with the people
-          Start with what they know, build on what they have
-          Teach by showing, learn by doing
-          Not a showcase but a pattern (model)
-          Not piecemeal but integrated
-          Not odds & ends but a system
-          Not to conform but to transform
-          Not relief but release

Importance in Rural Development
-          Appraisal of rural socio-economic & cultural condition
-          Listen to the demand of the local people
-          Self-reliance through education, health, agriculture…
-          Employment opportunities creation
-          Poverty alleviation
-          Practical knowledge
-          Change in traditional, rigid customs & cultures
-          People’s participation in development work
-          Mobilization & utilization of local resources


Rural Community Development Approaches
a)      Top-down Approach
o    Plan formation at central level & implementation by the bureaucrats
o   Complete framework with the help of concerning scholars
o   Evaluation of development program by external expertise
o   Survey by the cradles from center
b)      Human Capital Development Approach
o   Capacity building of the backward groups, so they can live self-sufficient life through the utilization of their skills/capacity.
o   Priority to eradicate poverty & elite dependency
c)       Bottom-up Approach
o   Plan formulation in the selected field/community
o   Public awareness
o   Wise utilization of means, resources & skills of local level
o   Empowerment & self-confidence through self-monitoring/evaluation
o   Formation of social capital gradually
d)      Integrated Development Approach
o   Popularity during 1970s
o   Qualitative & quantitative change
o   This method is developed as a package
o   Multi-dimensional (Triangulation)
o   Relation with development policy, strategy & program
o   Positive impact on holistic community development
e)      Right Based Development Approach
o   Right to development
o   Human capacity building
f)       Self-reliance Development Approach
o   Empowering people through self-practicing
o   Development by local people for themselves
g)      Need Based Development Approach
o   Emerged in 1970s
o   Priority to basic needs according to time & place
o   Qualitative change

Rural Community Development Methods & Strategies
a)      Education
-          Learning by doing
-          Practical knowledge
Priorities as mentioned by scholars:
-          Local needs
-          Socio-cultural diversity
-          Co-ordination
-          Democratic method
b)      Extension of Organization
-          Fullest people’s participation
-          Change in traditional norms & values
-          Effective in decision making
-          Empowering local people
-          Can be applied in all places
c)       Social/Community Mobilization
-          Organizational empowerment
-          Development of poor & marginalized
-          Participation in income generating activities
-          Equal distribution of means & resources
-          Holistic development
-          Development of human resources & capacity

Rural Community Participation
“Community participation is an active process by which beneficiary or client groups influence the direction & execution of a development project with a view to enhancing their well-being in terms of income, personal growth, self-reliance or other values they cherish.” – Paul (1987)
“Participation is a growing family of approaches & methods to enable local people to share, enhance & analyze their knowledge of life & condition and to plan, act, monitor & evaluate.” – Robert Chamber
As a whole community participation is a complex process of gathering various individual opinions regarding specific case or event & developing we-feeling with ownership over achievements.

Types of Community Participation
Somesh Kumar has mentioned the types of participation in his publication ‘Methods for Community Participation’ 2007:24 as follows:
a)      P1 – Passive Participation
o   One sided participation
o   No responsibility of people
b)      P2 – Participation in information giving
o   Participation only in providing information
c)       P3 – Participation by consultation
o   Review of plan & policies in participation of people
o   Participation if only outsider calls people
d)      P4 – Participation for material incentives
o   Contribution of physical property or things by people
o   Participation if only benefit can be enjoyed/utilized
e)      P5 – Functional Participation
o   Formation of an organization by outsider
o   Participation as organization but not in primary stages
f)       P6 – Interactive Participation
o   Participation in complete project cycle
o   Responsibility taking by participants
g)      P7 – Self Mobilization
o   Independent from outsider, only for consultation
o   Self-decision in every steps
o   Local knowledge, skill, technology

Resource Mobilization & Development
Resource mobilization is a process of using tools & techniques for achieving objectives. Mobilizing resources is resource mobilization.

Types of Resources
a)      Natural Resources
b)      Human Resources
c)       Financial Resources
d)      Social Resources
e)      Managerial Resources
f)       Information Resources

In the process of resource mobilization, the following points should be considered
-          Resource identification, survey & noting
-          Scope/area of resource utilization
-          Right & responsibility of user
-          Estimation of investment
-          Resource management capacity
-          Level of people’s participation
-          Socio-economic status of people
-          Strategy to mobilize resources
-          Satisfaction, response & proper utilization

Importance of Resource Mobilization in Rural Development
-          Increase in employment opportunities
-          Social basis for capital formation
-          Poverty alleviation
-          Self-reliance
-          Self-esteem
-          Equality
-          Increase in People’s participation
-          Modernization of agriculture
-          Increase in production & productivity
-          Development in living standard/quality life
-          Eradication of rigid customs, values

Concept, Meaning & Definition of Social Participation
Participation means the complex & dynamic strategy of being involve in some organization or institution to build or increase capacity, skill, & knowledge for achieving specific objective/s.
Process of Social Participation:
Text Box: - Quality life
- Community well-being
- Expansion of access on resources
- Leadership development
- Socio-cultural freedom
- Increase in confidence
- Rapid action plan
Text Box: - Government
- I/NGOs
- DDC/VDC etc.
Input:                                                                    Process:                                                                               Output:
Text Box: - Group Formation
- Skill Development
- Capital
- Awareness
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
Assumptions of Social Participation
-          Capacity building
-          Environment management
-          Development of technology
-          Organization building & development
-          Women empowerment
-          Mobilization of capital

Elements of Social Participation
-          Skill
-          Small Capital
-          Group

Stages of Social Participation Process
-          Appraisal & rapport building
-          Social analysis
-          Social capital & group formation
-          Social action by group or CBOs
-          Alliance building
-          Social reflection

Concept & Meaning of Community Empowerment
The expansion of freedom of choice & action to shape one’s life is empowerment. The word ‘empowerment’ was fashioned from 1980s.
Empowerment processes are action which both build individual & collective assets, & improve the efficiency & fairness of the organizational & institutional contexts which govern the use of the assets.
“Empowerment is the process to growing power, both control over external resources, & growth in inner self-confidence & capability.” – Sen (1997)
The empowerment includes:
-          Participation & decision making in concerned subject matter
-          Capability building
-          Capital formation & mobilization for quality life
-          Co-operation with other organizations
-          Promotion of local resources & socio-economic development
-          Self-confidence building that ‘we are doing for ourselves’

Dimensions of Community Empowerment
-          Economic dimension
-          Socio-cultural dimension
-          Political dimension
-          Psychological dimension

Process of Community Empowerment





























Text Box: Community EmpowermentText Box: - Democracy & Human Right
- Social unity
- Religious freedom
- Equal right
- Participation in decision making
Text Box: Class; not access to politicsText Box: Class; less access to developmentText Box: - Educational development
- Trainings
- Right to information & dissemination
Text Box: - Equal participation
- Legal awareness
- Leadership development
- Socio-cultural freedom
- Increase in self-confidence
Text Box: - Increase access in resources
- Decentralized action plan
- Balance in development
Text Box: People out of educational accessText Box: Socially backward, deprived marginalized people









Empowerment & Rural Development
-          Social justice
-          Inclusive democracy
-          Freedom, equality & Human Right development
-          Sustainable mobilization of resources
-          Educational awareness
-          Development of gender equality
-          Nation building & Integration
-          Eradication or discrimination

Rural Development Policies in Nepal
Policy is:
-          Road map
-          Set of decisions & directions
-          Purposed working method
-          Objective & practice oriented framework

Features of Rural Development Policies
-          Beneficial
-          Transparent
-          Pro-poor
-          Complex
-          Open to change & improvement
-          Clarity & economic

Importance of Rural Development Policy
-          Agriculture development
-          Creation of employment
-          Empowerment of deprived groups
-          Economic growth
-          Development of physical infrastructures
-          Development of cottage & small-scale industries
-          Ensure environmental sustainability

Rural Development Strategies
Strategy is not a set of a magic rules but a system of available resources.
Skill X Vision X Capacity X Technology X Resources X Utilization = Rural Development
Rural development is a strategy designed to improve the economic & social life of a specific group of people, the rural poor. It involves the extension of the benefits of development to the poorest among those who seek a livelihood in rural areas.

Methods of Rural Development
-          Modernization & marketization of agriculture
-          Increase in access
-          Technological advancement
-          Equal access to health, education & other basic services
-          Targeted to backward, marginalized…
-          Utilization of local resources
-          Insist to rural-urban relation
-          Increase in employment opportunities
-          Formation & utilization of capital
-          Diversity & specificity in production
-          Expansion of rural market
-          Local people on decision making
-          Self-reliance orientation
-          Change in knowledge, attitude & practice

Rural Development Practices in Nepal
a)      Before 2007: Peace, security & taxation, formation of Agriculture Council but not active, construction of rural roads, taps, bridges, religious stations etc. in the direction of head-of-village. No provision of plan.
b)      2007-2017:  Establishment of democracy, Tribhuvan Gram Bikas program by Block Development Officer (BDO). Programs in three steps: Nucleolus, Dehat & Block (VDC). This was mainly concentrated in fertilizer, seeds distribution.
c)       2017-2046:  Panchayat system, Panchayat Bikas Program – institutional development, social mobilization & change in attitude. Formation of 14 zones & 75 districts, zone-head, district-head & village-head, but no programs only legalization of Panchayat. The programs in this period can be classified as:
                     i.            Area based:                Small area development program, Integrated Rural Development Program, Remote Area development program…
                   ii.            Target based: Small farmer development program, Women development program & Praja development program…
                  iii.            Sector based: Fruit farming, animal husbandry, crops farming etc…
But,
-          Lack of people’s participation
-          Centralized
-          Lack of responsibility
-          Dependency on bureaucrats
-          No access of poor & backward…
d)      2046-Now:  Multi-party system, formation of VDC, DDC & Metropolitan, Local Self Governance Act-2055, decentralization, poverty alleviation program, social empowerment & mobilization programs, agriculture debt, self-employment program, investment in social capital & infrastructure building…

Rural Development Programs in Nepal
a)      Village Development Program
This program was launched in 1952 with the aim of self-reliance & self-dependence of the rural people. Economic & technological assistance by America & India, whole Nepal was divided into 150 blocks, priority to public participation. Enacted from 1953-1961, that focused on activities formation for rural development, expansion of programs, co-operative schools & foster homes. The provision of Ministry at central level, Village Development Board in village, Block Development Office at block level was in practice. This program was stopped with the political change in the country.
b)      Panchayat Development Program
Social mobilization, institutionalization of development & change in attitude were the main focus of various programs. Remote Area Program, Small Area Development Program, Saving & Credit development, Land Reform, Back to Village programs are some of the major programs in this period. Likewise, trainings to women, agricultural training center, and political participation are launched in this period.
c)       Integrated Rural Development Program (IRDP)
Working sectors are agriculture, irrigation, drinking water, rural road, schools, and income generating activities. 19 IRDPs were implemented during the period of 1974 to this time. From these programs rural dwellers of 48 districts were mainly profited. The aid for these programs were provided by Asian Development Bank, DENIDA, Swiss Government, German aid, Netherland Government & other 13 agencies. But doesn’t met targeted aim.
d)      Small Farmer Development Program (SFDP)
Firstly in the help of Agriculture Development Bank, this program was tested in Dhunche & Mahendranagar in 2032 B.S. After the success, the expansion of this program is increased. Nepalese Government, IFAD, ADB, UNICEF, UNFPA, USAID, GIZ, CareNepal, EU, Ford Foundation are the economic aid provider for these programs. About 12 lakh people were benefited from this program until 2052/53.
e)      Rural Self-reliance Program
Rural Self Reliance Fund is the first institution to provide small scale debt in Nepal. It was established in 2047 Falgun 17. Mainly this provides debt to pro-poor, backward people.
f)       Production Credit for Rural Women Program
With the objectives of poverty alleviation Nepal Rastra Bank implemented this program in 2039 with the help of Ministry of Local Development. And agricultural debt by IFAD, the amount was 23 corer & 46 lakh.
g)      Remote Area Development Program (RADP)
Enhancing socio-economic condition of 22 eastern districts.
h)      Micro-credit for Rural Women Program (MRWP)
Completion of PCRW, by ADB in 2055 Bhadra 30, economic debt agreement with ADB. Priority to women in agriculture, But not successful.
i)        Community Underground Irrigation Project (CUIP)
20 years plan with ADB in 12 districts of Terai. Later many other organization participated in investment.
j)        Build Our Village Ourselves
Led by UCPN in 2051 B.S. 5 lakh to each village in 6 months increased from 3 lakh, Bottom-up planning.
k)      District Partnership Program
Netherland Government, socio-economic development of Karnali dwellers.
l)        Special Area Development Program
25 districts, backward people, rural road, irrigation, animal & herbs development, social mobilization, income generating activities.
m)    Rural Community Infrastructure Program
World Food Program, 33 districts, fish farming, irrigation, road & agro-forestry…
n)      Upkeshit, Utpidit & Dalit Community Program
Educational scholarship, health, sanitary, drinking water & 41 foster homes…
o)      Poverty Alleviation Fund (PAF)
Objectives: Poverty below 10% in next 20 years, Making poverty half by 2015.

Concept & Meaning of Organization
The word ‘organization’ was evolved from Greek word ‘Organon’ which means ‘tool’ or ‘instrument’. So, the organization is a group of people, dedicated to achieve specific aim. In some cases this is understood as an administrative structure. Formation of an organization requires certain rules, policies, strategies & assumptions as well as objectives. This concept or practice can be understood as the failure of a single person to achieve goals.
“Organization is the form of every human association for the attainment of a common purpose.” –T.D. Mooney
“Organization are planned units deliberately structured for the purpose of attaining specific goals.” –Amitai Etzoniae
“Organization is a system of co-operative activities of two or more persons.” –Chester I. Bernard
As a whole, an organization is a medium to systematize the resources mobilization process to gain specific goals.

Basic Characteristics of Organization
-          Common objectives
-          Work/job division
-          Co-ordination
-          Relation of individuals
-          Hierarchy of authority
-          Task based
-          Combination of system & sub-system
-          Control over individual behavior

Basic Elements of Organization
-          Common goals
-          Stability
-          Participation
-          Legitimacy
-          Feeling of unity
-          Achievement oriented
-          Clients
-          Leadership
-          Process
-          Communication
-          Physical & financial resources

Organization Building Process & Empowerment
-          Recognition
-          Greater responsibility
-          Broad & multiple activities
-          Linkages
-          Legitimacy
The process of attaining these things by some sort of group is called organization building process.
According to Riggs:
Basic Aspects
Stage 1
Stage 2
Stage 3
 Stage 4
Stage 5
Organization
Establishment
Development
Presenting achievements
Institutionalization
Re-production
Bureaucracy
Entrance
Active role
Entrepreneurship
Entrepreneurship
Productive task
Consumer
Nobel/inert
Intelligence
Participation
Legitimacy
Acceptance
                                                                Table: Organization building process.

Organizational Building Model


Text Box: Foreign Government
















































Text Box: EnvironmentText Box: GovernmentText Box: Interest Group


Text Box: Organized PublicText Box: EnvironmentText Box: General PublicText Box: Opinion LeadersText Box: Attempting PublicText Box: EnvironmentText Box: EnvironmentText Box: Functional LinkagesText Box: Normative LinkagesText Box: Diffused LinkagesText Box: - Institution
- Leadership
- Doctrine
- Program
- Resources
- Internal Structure
 
Text Box: Enabling LinkagesText Box: Local Government












               


Source: Bhimdev Bhatta, 2060
According to Luther Grulick:
Text Box: 4PText Box: ProcessText Box: PersonsText Box: PurposeText Box: Place                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               


Empowerment in Organization
Process of capacity building or increasing is empowerment.
“Empowerment is the process of gaining power, both control over external resources, & growth in inner self-confidence & capability.” –Sen (1997)

Importance of Empowerment in Organization
-          High level achievement & work-editing
-          Effective service & production
-          Increase in working capability of workers
-          Optimum utilization of available resources
-          Satisfaction of workers & consumers
-          Credibility & attraction of organization
-          To gain meaningful & fruitful goals easily

Induced Organizations
This kind of organizations are dependent in external expertise, resources or capital for mobilizing & utilizing local human power & other means & resources. These are controlled or supervised by external institutions such as I/NGOs and other governmental organizations. Development works in partnership or in co-ordination of external organization for optimum utilization of means & resources & people’s partnership is the key factor of Induced Organizations. This kind of organization appeared in Nepal after 1970s & 80s & national planning in governmental program; 2013 B.S.

Features of Induced Organizations:
-          Directed or controlled by external agencies
-          Participation of external expertise
-          External & internal resources mobilization
-          Short-term in nature
-          Outsider as facilitator
-          Co-operation with local community
-          Priority to life-standard
-          Dependency on donor agencies

Importance of Induced Organizations in Rural Development:
-          Hardships to local organizations will be reduced
-          Awareness & capacity building
-          Low economic & administrative pressure
-          Priority to backward, marginalized groups
-          Pressure to local organizations
-          Mainstreaming backward people
-          Modern technology & expertise
-          Local leadership development
-          Perfectness in development activities
-          Optimum utilization or resources

Indigenous Organizations
This kind of organizations are the protector & promoter of local culture & traditions. Local knowledge, skill, capacity & technology for conservation of specific kind of culture & rituals in local area is the motto of these organizations. Locally developed, without support of external parties are the indigenous organizations
“Indigenous organizations are those which are devoted to economic & social aspects of rural community.” – W.B.
“The idea of small groups of users banding together as neighborhood, families, productive activities, common property management or public works development is a well-established traditions in Nepal.” –Messerschmitt
At last, local knowledge, techniques, cultures, religions & specific caste or other identities are the soul of these organizations.
Here are some of the indigenous organizations of Nepal:
a)      Dhikur:
-          Economic organization of western Nepalese Thakali, Bhote, Lowa & Tibetans.
-          Economic mobilization, saving & investment in banking style, that led by ‘Dhikur Aama’ in Gurung & ‘Gopa’ in Thakali & Bhote
-          Generally membership of 10-30 persons
b)      Rodhi:
-          Institution of Gurung of western Nepal
-          Gathering of youths in evening & sharing feelings & entertainment
c)       Bheja:
-          Economic & socio-cultural organization of Gurung of western Nepal
-          Religious rituals, agricultural works by collective effort, that is led by ‘Mukhiya’
d)      Guthi:
-          Religious organization of Newars of Kathmandu valley
-          Participation of every household & mutual relation, co-action
e)      Parma:
-          Labor exchange system of all
-          Gurung-Nogyar & Limbu-Pareli
f)       Dharma Panchayat:
-          Local cultural governing body
-          Judgment & justice in local issues by ‘Mukhiya’
-          Local solution of socio-economic, cultural & political cases

Features of Indigenous Organizations:
-          Culture specific
-          Primarily community based
-          No formal rules & regulations
-          Participative environment
-          Seniority based leadership
-          Self-help in nature
-          Homogeneity of ethnic groups
-          Decisions on agreement & discussion
-          Permanent & temporary

Types of Indigenous Organizations
-          Agricultural
-          Forest work
-          Credit
-          Political
-          Religious
-          Socio-economic activities

Leader & Leadership Building in Rural Development
Sociologists say that leadership is the use of power or effect on people or groups. Mass & public support for leader is must & that is must not to miss element of leadership
Leader is someone who can influence others & who cash managerial authority that leads process.
Leadership is the well-being ness of person. The capacity, power, & influencing art of a leader is called leadership. This quality or art changes the diverse intention of public & directs, controls & empowers people for achieving specific goals. Ability or acting as a leader is leadership. Only good leader always promotes welfare & wise situation-handling capacity. This is value loaded term.
“Leadership is the art of coordinating and motivating individual of groups to achieve desired ends.” –Piffner

Types of Leadership
-          Political leader
-          Democratic leader
-          Autocratic leader
-          Revolutionary leader
-           Reformer Leader
-           Diplomatic Leader

Qualities of Leadership
-          Curiosity
-          Creativity
-          Communication
-          Character
-          Courage
-          Conviction
-          Charisma
-          Competent
-          Common sense
-          Imagination power
-          Flexibility
-          Foresighted


Role of Leadership in Organizational Development & Social Change
There are many problems in society. All of them can’t be solved at once but for its solution, we can’t ignore the importance of organization. No organization can achieve its goal without a good leader. Leaders are the key factor for organizational functions; they are means to change the society. In case of development activities, sound relation & interdependence with proper functioning is required in both organization & leader. Organization is a medium to mobilize & utilize economic, human and capital means and resources. No organization can function without leader. That’s why leader is dynamic and live key-holder of an organization and social change.

Role of Rural Leadership in Organizational Development
An organization has its goals and aim. To grab the aim, there requires means & resources. Only by the optimum utilization of means and resources, aim can be achieved. For the best, optimum & wise utilization, there is need of a good leader. The roles of leader in organization can be presented as below:
-          As an entrepreneur
-          As a disturbance handler
-          As a resource allocator
This roles gives significance to a leader. They mainly do:
-          Goal emphasizing
-          Support
-          Work facilitation
According to Peter Drucker, Good leadership brings out the best in people with it ordinary people can do extraordinary things. Likewise, Robert Kreiter mentions, Leadership is a social influence process in which the leader seeks the voluntary participation of subordinates in an efforts to each organizational objectives. Generally the role of a rural leader in an organization can be mentioned as below:
-          Goal setting
-          Organizational function
-          Co-ordination & direction
-          Developing team work
-          Representative
-          Motivation
-          Use of power
-          Time management
-          Executive function
-          Formulation of plans
-          Policy making
-          As a mediator
-          Control over internal phenomena
-          Provision of reward & punishment
-          Show the ideal/utopia
-          Demonstrate the well path
As a whole, to change the traditional & rigid cultures & perceptions into development oriented.


Role or Leadership in Social Change & Rural Development
Any alteration, difference or modification that takes place in a situation or in an object through time can be called change. And the term social change is used to indicate the changes that takes place in human interaction & interrelations.
Social change is a natural & dynamic process, it never ends, till the existence of human beings. Generally, society refers to the relation, interaction between individuals, so the changes in their mode of interaction, relation is called social change. Social change is only a part of cultural change. Cultural change includes change in art, science, technology, philosophy, knowledge, beliefs, rituals, customs & traditions. Therefore all social changes are cultural changes, but all cultural changes need not necessarily be the social change.
In case of development, leader as a mediator is must essential factor. Only through a good leader, the fruits of development can be delivered to backward, deprived & marginalized people that promotes welfare in society. There is a saying that if you get the right man in the leadership job and all your problems would be solved. Like that, only good leaders can promotes social change & rural development in real sense.

Current Discourses on Rural Development in Nepal
Agriculture & Rural Development
Rural Development is a strategy of socio-cultural change of backward, countryside area. One of the main feature of rural area is its dependence on natural resources. Most of the people are engaged in agriculture, so rural development would be impossible without agricultural modernization & development.
Rural people don’t use modern tools & techniques for agricultural production. They apply traditional tools & techniques. In case of Nepal, the later generation use what their forefathers left to them, such as Halo, Kodali, Kuto etc. Using this kind of tools, prioritize traditionalism, decreases production & productivity. As an example use of tractor instead of Kuto & Kodalo is a step towards modernization of agriculture.
Modernization in agriculture is only possible through the use of modern, less time consuming tools & techniques. Rural people are supposed to produce only seasonal crops, fruits etc. So, by applying modern method unseasonal production could be possible. Modernizing agriculture would change the structure of rural market as well as their living standard. This increases productivity, and decreases poverty and economic dependency on elites of society, which contributes to fill up the gap between rich & poor.
In the context of Nepal, agriculture is soul of rural life and backbone of national economy. Most of the people are dependent on agriculture for their survival. Around 32% of total GDP is contributed by agriculture in Nepal. More than 86% population still depends on agriculture. They are applying traditional knowledge because of lack of access to modern tools & techniques. There are many problems in Nepalese agriculture, such as unscientific land distribution, division of land, lack of irrigation facility, lack of manure on time & market problems. So there has been some programs launched, despite that there is no drastic change happening in agriculture production. In the decade of 1990s, Nepal was listed as least productive compared to other South Asian countries. This kind of devastating situation is promoting poverty & unemployment. A report shows 31% of total population in Nepal belongs under poverty line, and most of them are rural farmers during 2060/61.
Government of Nepal has provision of long term plan that is Agriculture Perspective Plan (AAP) with the aim of reducing poverty & increasing agricultural productivity from 0.5 to 3% within next 20 years. Regional balance is another concern of this plan. It has prioritized animal husbandry & fruit farming in Mountain & Hill while Terai is suitable for food crops. For the achievement of aim, three areas of main concern are:
-          Expansion of irrigation facilities
-          Market promotion through development of rural transportation & road
-          Increase in production through utilization of modern technology
-          Availability of improved seeds and fertilizer
But due to the lack of political commitment, regularity, no need identification of local people, lack of co-ordination among concerned groups & weak monitoring & evaluation the aim is susceptible to meet on time. Despite the plan, there is increase in food crisis & rural poverty. Nepal was agro-exporting nation during 1980s but in 1990s this changed into importing country. So, for the development of the whole country, rural agricultural development is indispensable.
Farming system is traditional, lack of use of modern & scientific tools and techniques are the main problems of Nepalese agriculture. Less contact and relation with other third countries except India & lack of knowledge on global market including high production costs are compelling Nepali market to be exiled form the world market & economy. Less competitive goods, unrefined production, lack of communication, transportation doesn’t allow to promote internal productions. So, the modernization of agriculture is inevitable factor for the development of the country’s economy.
In the context of less production & productivity of agriculture sector in Nepal, here we will analyze the geographical impact for this situation.
Geographically Nepal is divided into three main regions. Mountain (4877-8848m) (35% of Nepal) have only 2% of cultivable land. In the other side Hill (610-4877m) (42% of Nepal) have only 10% cultivable land. And Terai (59-610m) (23% of Nepal) have 40% cultivable land of its total.
Including this factor there are many diversities in Nepalese socio-cultural scenario that also directly influences the trend of agriculture production.
Traditional farming is the base for subsistence living standard. Agriculture is not only an occupation in Nepalese society, it is directly related with local culture & rituals. These customs do not allow specification in production. Average land-holding is decreasing due to the fragmentation of land. This statistics shows only 0.16 hector in Hilly & 0.115 hector per person in Upper Hilly region. This trend is a major factor for the starvation & vicious circle of poverty. That’s why institutional effort is essential.
It is complex to modernize agriculture and in the context of developing nations it is more difficult. It takes great effort and investment to change subsistence farming trend into market-oriented. But there is no any way to get out of it, if this sector uplifts, automatically the national economy will strengthen.

Characteristics of Nepalese Agriculture
-          Dependency on monsoon
-          Traditional farming system
-          Subsistence farming
-           Unemployed occupation
-          Excessive pressure on agricultural land
-          Unequal distribution of land (64% people have 10% land & 4% people have 39% land)
-          Fragmented land holding
-          Dual ownership (land owner & tenant/farmer)
-          Dominance of food crops (91% land-food crops & 9% land-cash crops)
-          Labor intensive farming

Importance of Agriculture in Rural Development
Agriculture sector is an engine of economic development. Agriculture is the economic engine of rural development and industry of all industry. More than 2.1 billion people resides under poverty line, they dwell in rural area. In this context Gunnar Myrdal says, it is in the agriculture sector that the battle for long term economic development will be lost or won.
-          Main source of livelihood
-          Main source of national income
-          Source of food supply
-          Basis for industry
-          Basis for livestock farming
-          Source of rural revenue
-          Source of foreign trade
-          Base for market extension
-          Base for nation development
And,
-          Providing more food to rapidly growing population
-          Providing raw materials for industries
-          To import capital goods through agricultural exports
-          To increase rural income
-          Providing productive employment
-          Socio-economic welfare

Problems of Nepalese Agriculture
-          Backward technology
-          Indebtedness of farmers
-          Lack of irrigation facility
-          Lack of credit for agriculture
-          Lack of transportation & communication
-          Lack of agricultural research
-          Lack of store house
-          Lack of seeds & fertilizer
-          Unorganized agriculture market
-          Dual ownership in agriculture

Measures of Solving Agricultural Problems
-          Expansion of irrigation facilities
-          Agriculture research
-          Control in population growth
-          Development of transportation & communication
-          Provision of credit facilities
-          Mechanization
-          Technological progress
-          Provision of improved seeds & fertilizer
-          Management of agriculture market
-          Management of store house
Especially Nepalese Agriculture Movement forwards following demands;
-          Revolutionary land reform
-          Agriculture out of WTO
-          Food security & reducing starvation
-          Night class for farmers & video streaming
-          Provision of insurance
-          Investment & debt in low principle
-          Price fixation of agro-products
-          Social security & basic land holding of farmers
-          Land use policy & suitable farming
-          Provision of limitation for personal land use
-          Agro-forestry development
-          Provision of agriculture service center & vet. (animals’ Doctor)
-           Organized agricultural co-operation
-          Bio-diversity & intellectual property conservation
-          Rural electrification & cold store
-          Agricultural road construction
-          Poverty alleviation & reduce unemployment
-          Agricultural modernization & self-dependence

Gender and Rural Development
Sex- Biological difference between male & female
“Sex is a way of distinguishing male & female members of species, usually by referencing in their reproductive functions. Sex refers to coitus on intercourse, an act that can result in reproduction. Sex refers to the genitals.” – Lerner Advanced Dictionary
Gender- Socio-cultural role of male and female
Gender may be difference within same sex according to time, society and situation. But in this topic, gender mainly focuses to female. And we discuss about women & rural development in preceding texts.
There has been many exercises done for the equality between men & women. In 1970s Women in Development (WID) program focused on the participation of women in development work and fruits distribution to them too, which helps for the equality of both women & men. And in late 1970s Women & Development (WAD) program was forwarded, which insisted in equal participation of women in development works as men do. After this program, the concept of gender and development in 1980s, focused on equal participation of men and women for equitable development. So, the word ‘Gender’ expresses ‘the equality between men and women’.
By birth, men and women are treated in different ways and given them specific roles because of difference in sex. Fundamental biological characteristics of men and women is sex. And the role provided to each separate sex by society is called gender. So, the gender is the role & this may be different within same sex in different society & situation. Gender is socio-culturally constructed. Society expects some roles on the basis of difference in sex, this is called gender.
According to Oakley & Rogers “Gender is socially constructed roles and responsibilities assigned to men and women in a given culture/society & localities based upon their societal/cultural structures, gender is learned behavior, non-permanent that changes over time. It is social construct, independent of biology.”
According to WB (2000) “Gender refers to socially constructed roles and socially learned behaviors & expectation associated with females & males.”
“Gender is socially and culturally determined differences in behavior, role & status of men and women.” –C.S. Smith

Gender Equity
Men and women are not same in biological sense, but treating them equally on the basis of norms, values, psychologically & socio-culturally is gender equity. And their justifiable & unbiased access to economic means and resource is equity. “Equity indicates a kind of justice of fair treatment. Equality indicates sameness or homogeneity.” –C. Doglas (1975)
Equity is a strategy/way to equality by positive discrimination with priority to backward.

Gender Equality
Participation of men and women without any kind of discrimination. Both of them have equal right, responsibility and opportunities.
“Gender equality is not a complicated idea. It’s simple: women must have a same rights as men & discrimination has to stop.” –DFID
“Gender equality refers to norms, values, attitudes & perceptions require to attain equal status between women and men. Gender equity refers to fairness in which women & men access to socio-economic resources & equal participation.” –UNDP
People are born female or male but learn to be girls and boys, who grew into women & men. This learned behavior determines our gender roles. Sex refers to those characteristics which are biologically-determined. The word gender is used to describe those characteristics of women & men, which are socially constructed. Gender equality means equal treatment of women and men in laws, policies and equal access to resources and services within families, communities and society at large-an absence of discrimination on the bases of a persons’ sex in opportunities and the allocation of resources or benefits or in access to services.
Gender equality can be categorized as:
-          Formal equality
-          Substantive equality
-          Protectionist equality
-          Corrective equality
Five indicators of Gender Equality by World Economic Forum:
-          Economic opportunity
-          Economic participation
-          Political participation
-          Health & well being
-          Educational attainment
Sweden, Norway, Iceland, Denmark & Finland are ranked accordingly on the basis of gender equality.
Gender Equality/Equity & Sustainable Rural Development
Sustainable rural development is long-lasting development that fulfills the requirements of present generation without intervening the future generations’ demands. There will not be problem for future generation by the now-developed infrastructures & natural exploitation.
World Women’s Convention in Beijing includes women and environment within twelve critical areas of concerns. This focuses on the access of women to environment and natural resources. And concluded that by environmental exploitation, women are more victimized than men.
Environment exploitation impacts social life. And there will not be equal participation, without women’s participation. There requires equal participation, without their participation sustainability in development cannot be achieved. That’s why gender and sustainable development can be sighted from gender discourses point of view.
Rural development is a process of integrating rural people for achieving one goal. This empowers their knowledge & capacity. This is the process of self-sustaining. The vicious circle of poverty stands as one obstacle for rural development. And this impacts mostly women. They have to be dependent for their own survival. So, there should be participation of women in each and every program of development. This can only reduce the gender differences. There is huge discrimination among rural people, men are free compared to women. Now this has been global concern. For the solution to the problem UN has launched many programs such as amendment of indication of 2008 January 5 for legal development of global community. There they mentioned gender equality and women’s empowerment in third point. Which has aim of achieving till 2015. Nepal has also participated in this program and aimed to reduce women discrimination in education from 2015. There has been drastic change in women’s status in global context, but this still needs to be equal in participation in programs & programs and consumption of developmental fruits. In the context of Nepal, traditional rituals and customs serves for unequal treatment to women. There is no equal participation of women in market sphere, they are likely to work in home only, and they do non-economic functions. Demographically, 51.50% women are there according to census of 2068. But there lacks equal participation in public forum, such as constituent assembly, bureaucracy etc.
There are not only dark sides because government provides positive discrimination for their access in policy making level, prioritized girls’ education & subsidies in public institutions.
As a whole, the role of gender equality/equity for rural development can be presented as below:
-          Wise utilization of means & resources
-          Green revolution in agriculture
-          To ease decision making process
-          Environment conservation
-          Education & health facility for women
-          Community participation & programs
-          Regular flow of information
-          Ensure Human Right
As a conclusion, it can be concluded that there must be equal participation of women in each and every sector for rural as well as global development. There requires positive change in attitude towards women. This only promotes welfare.



Gender Issues
Gender issues are socially discussed subjects relating to gender. In other words, gender issues are those discourses, which are generated by the discrimination between men and women or girls and boys. It is the comparison between role of male and females within social structure.
Mainly after 1970s, participation of women in development and benefit distribution to them was prioritized. Now, it is established as inseparable subject matter in development. World is now narrowed as Global Village and the gender related issues are included in many plans and programs.
Gender issues may vary from country to country. Some of the gender issues are:
a)      Women and Right to Property: Women too have equal right for ancestral property and women should be allowed to enjoy their parental property after them. This has prioritized in women’s independence through economic insights. When women will grow economically independent, they can be free from most of the exploitation they face.
b)      Women and Politics: Politics is policy making process. There we find less participation of women. Even in developed nations, this statistics remain same as others. World Women’s Convention in Beijing also insisted in participation of women in policy making.
c)       Women and Violence: Any kind of physical or mental torcher or disturbance to women is women violence. Prostitution, child marriage, black-mailing, polygamy are some of them.
d)      Body Politics (zl// /fhlglt): This is developed as a major branch of women and politics. This insists on women’s right on their own body. They should have right to decide whether or not to use their body. No politics should be done on the basis of physical disadvantages.
e)      Other Gender Issues: Women health, reproductive health, education are some of the gender issues. Equal payment to men and women for same kind of work are emerging issues.
These kinds of gender issues should be concerned in developmental works. Their equal participation results sustainability n development. If they left behind, development in actual sense cannot be achieved. That’s why gender issues are the main factors for holistic and long-lasting development.

Gender Mainstreaming
Involving women in the main wave or stream of development is gender mainstreaming. Providing responsibility with benefit sharing is the process of gender mainstreaming. The main and ultimate aim of gender mainstreaming is gender equality in every dimension. Empowering and utilizing female power helps in accelerating the pace of development.
In Nepal, from the 6th plan, provision of capacity building and mobilizing in productive work to women is forwarded. Likewise, 7th and 8th national plan have insisted in equal participation of women in development with gender mainstreaming. And 10th and 11th plans started recording their participation in developmental works and increasing their participation in decision making level.
Establishment of women’s ministry, National Women’s Commission are some of the prioritized works of these plans. For sustainable and benefiting development gender equality cannot be ignored. Problems relating to gender issues should be solved, which is one of the main concern of 21st century’s global development.

Limitations of Gender Issues in Nepal:
-          No right to women over paternal property
-          No participation in decision making level
-          Presence of gender discriminatory laws
-          Low literacy rate of women
-          No determination of gender sensitive areas/fields
-          Lack of plan implementation
-          Violence of human rights
-          Lack of access to women to productive works
-          Lack of management for discriminated women

Measuring ways of Gender Issues:
-          Participation of women in every sectors
-          Public awareness and long-terms plans
-          Gender-friendly law & developmental works
-          Economic evaluation of women’s work
-          Right to paternal property
-          Organization building
-          Equality through positive discrimination
-          Representation from backward
-          Suitable plans and policies
-          Capacity building and empowerment

Education and Rural Development
According to UN (1997): “Education is fundamental to enhancing the quality of human life and ensuring social & economic progress.”
World Bank Report (1999): “Education is the key to creating, adopting and spreading knowledge, but the gains in access to education have been unevenly distributed, with the poor seldom getting their fair share.”
Froebel: “Education is the process by which the child makes its internal qualities in outside.”

Importance of Education in Rural Development
Education-skillful manpower-resources mobilization-creation of employment opportunities-increase in income-increase in purchasing power-qualitative living standard-Rural Development
-          Development of skilled manpower
-          End of traditional/conservative thoughts
-          Agricultural transformation
-          Proper mobilization of rural resources
-          Gender equality
-          People’s participation
-          Employment and entrepreneurship
-          Protection of local knowledge, skill and culture
-          Rural tourism
-          Use of alternative energy
-          Increase in productive efficiency
-          Consciousness on sanitation and healthy life


Problems in Expansion of Education
-          Lack of infrastructures
-          Lack of skilled manpower/human resources
-          No availability of schools/institutions
-          Less attraction on teaching profession
-          Political interference
-          Top-down policy system
-          Lack of practical education
-          Lack of investment/poverty
-          Traditional method

State of Education in Nepal
-          Previously informal religious education
-          ‘Sanskrit’ education in Prithivi Narayan Shah’s period
-          English primary school in Thapathali after Jung B. Rana’s England visit in 1910 B.S.
-          Durbar school by Bir Shamsher
-          ‘Madrasa school’ in 1996 B.S for Muslim education
-          Sanskrit institution in 1955 B.S. in many places
-          Formation of SLC Board in 1990 B.S.
-          11 Secondary Schools until 2007 B.S.
-          Establishment of National Education Planning Commission in 2010 B.S.
-          65.9% literate people according to 2068 census (75.1%-Male & 57.4% Female)
-          Present status of education, time relevancy, utilization etc…

Environment & Rural Development
Environment is a complex whole of living and non-living things with relation to each other, which survives as a system and understood in a holistic sense.






Text Box: Concept of EnvironmentText Box: Socio-cultural Aspects: Culture, customs, traditions, psychology beliefText Box: Biological Aspects: plants, animals, manText Box: Physical Aspects: water, air, soil, temperature
 






After the industrialization, impact of human civilization hugely exploited environment. Economic development of western countries in 1960 promoted consumerism. Following the trend of mass exploitation, concept of sustainable development started.
The word sustainable development was firstly used in Cocoyoc Declaration in 1972. Then sustainability in development was linked with environment protection. And later its scopes were enlarged.
Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.

Environment and Development: Interrelation
Environment and development are interdependent and most crucial to each other because, without adequate environmental protection, development will be undermined and without development, environmental protection will fail.
Accomplishing the twin goals of improving human well-being and protecting out common environment is primary challenge for all. Globally, the remedial measures in decision making level started only from 1960s. Various series of discussion, workshops, meeting, conference, summits have been attempted to overcome such crucial situation of the world. Currently, an integrated approach of environment and development is best put forwarded by the concept of sustainable development, defined as development which improves people’s quality of life within the carrying capacity of the earth’s life’s support system that can solve the current environmental crisis. Rapidly growing population have led to land, water and fuel-wood shortages in rural areas which create lack of sanitation & clean water.
Environment and sustainable rural development are very closely and strongly connected concepts and situations. It can be shown in many ways as follow:
-          Environment has to provide all necessary resources and conditions for the process of development. If it is not in a proper state, development cannot proceed. If it is in proper state, development will suffer too. Therefore, for developmental success, the environment has to be in balanced condition.
-          Similarly, if the development process takes a wrong direction, a short-term vision cannot be achieved. It makes unjustifiable exploitation of the environmental components and elements, it will not only deteriorate the environment but also naturally make the development narrow and unsustainable.
Thus, it is clear by that both the processes are closely connected with each other. Just as improvement in one will lead to the progress of other, deterioration of one will lead to deterioration of other. Therefore our efforts must be geared towards ensuring the developmental efforts and environmental conservation. So, we can attain the goal of creating environmentally sound living conditions for ourselves and for the coming generations, and make sustainable development in reality.

Environmental Issues
The environment of the global village was victimized due to the population explosion in developing countries, agriculture and industrial revolution in 1960s. This resulted as depletion of ozone layer, deforestation, desertification, acid rain, global warming, extinction of bio-diversity etc. Some programs were launched for solution but that seems insufficient. Here are some environmental issues as follow:
-          Problem in firewood and fodder collection
-          Problem in time management
-          Loss of productive time
-          Decrease in herbal, fruits and crops product
-          Problem in water resources
-          Natural hazards/disasters
-          Acid rain                                                                                 Water pollution
-          Desertification                                                                    Deforestation
-          Global warming                                                                  Land degradation
-          Drought & unseasonal rain                                            Soil Erosion/Landslides

Global Efforts for Environmental Protection
To control the over exploitation of environment in the name of development, industrialization and modernization, there has been many exercises done. Only after 1970s, the concentration of leaders, environmentalists and scholars diverted towards environmental protection due to the ecological imbalance. Conference related to environment was launched in 1971 in Helsinki. UN completed Stockholm conference in 1972 on ‘Human Ecology’ that formulated ‘United Nations Environmental Program’. And in 1983, UN commission for development and environment was established in the heading of former Norwegian Prime Minister Gro Harlem Brundtland. This commission submitted report on 1987 named ‘Our Common Future’, which focused in balance between environment and development. In 1992 Rio Conference forwarded Agenda-21 with priority to climate change, bio-diversity and forest. UN also focused on NGOs role in this matter. International Convention in Cairo prioritized women, development, environmental protection and population control in 1993. Likewise 1997’s Kyoto conference focused on pollution control.

Efforts for Environmental Protection in Nepal
-          Land use policy from sixth five years plan (2037-2042)
-          Special priority to environment in each development works from seventh plan (2042-2047), formation of Council for Natural and Cultural Source in 1990 A.D. and Environment Protection Council in 2050 and Environmental Impact Assessment.
-           Ministry of Population and Environment in 2052.
-          Development projects based on Agenda-21 in Dang, Surkhet, and Kailali.
-          Environment Protection Act on 2053 and Environment Conservation Regulation in 2054 was determined.
-          Formulation of terms and conditions for vehicle in Nepal in 2056.
-          Environment and resource conservation policy, land use policy, land reform and forest development program in eighth plan (2049-2054)
-          Sustainable development and environmental protection in 10th plan (2059-2064)
-          Participation of stakeholders, resource management, sustainability in use 14 conditions for industrial effluents and vehicle pollution management in 11th interim plan (2064-2067)
-           Human Right article 3 on Interim Constitution of Nepal And in article 35, welfare use of environmental resources with priority to local community
-          Many other acts and programs: plantation, conservation, green belts on road, green revolution…

Health and Rural Development
Health is wealth. If health is fit and right then everything goes beneficial.
“Health is the quality of life that enable the individual to live most and serve best.” – J.F. Williams
“Good health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being not the more absence of disease or infirmity.” –WHO
Three Aspects of Good Health:
-          Social well-being
-          Physical well-being
-          Mental well-being
In a conclusion, good health requires:
-          Fitness
-          Flexibility
-          Courage
-          Self-confidence
-          Self-control
-          Free from diseases
-          Comfortable
-          Good sleeping
-          Tension free
-          Positive mentality
Importance of Health in Rural Development
-          Social development
-          Increase in production and productivity
-          Economic development
-          Increase in income
-          Poverty reduction
-          To reduce risk
-          To increase voice and power
Text Box: - High moral value
- Labor efficiency
- High working capacity
- Population control
- Individual entitlement
- Increase in income
- Increase in production & productivity
As a whole;






Text Box: Rural DevelopmentText Box: Good Health:
- Mental well-being
- Physical well-being
- Social well-being







State of Health in Nepal
-          Planning in health facility development
-          Participation of private sector
-          1433 Health Posts in 28 districts by local bodies
-          Women health volunteers
-          Reduction of Malaria from Terai
-          International aid on health
-          Life expectancy rate to 70 years as by WHO
-          Human Development Index (HDI) 0.504 in 2002
-          Infant mortality rate 50 out of 1,000 in 2011
-          Child mortality rate 280  out of 100,00 in 2011
-          Child malnutrition 38.8% in 2011

Health Problems in Nepal
Challenges: Infrastructure development, cultural diversity, traditionalism, geography, gender discrimination, biasness in law, political interference, poverty…
Opportunities: Health right in constitution, Local participation, decentralization, privatization, local herbs…


Field Methods and Models of Inquiry on Rural Development
Many problems exists in society. For the solution of these problems, the importance of statistics cannot be denied. Fact data are the soul of research. So, for the collection of factual data, fieldwork study is important method.
In this method researcher him/herself visits or involves in the field or study area, this kind of participatory method of data collection is fieldwork study. Due to the direct relation between researcher and respondents, this method has high value in sociological research.
To find out the actual data, information, this method was previously used in the field of Anthropology. Later, this started to use in the field of sociology as well. In the context of rural social research, direct information collection cannot be ignored, fieldwork study helps to gain local knowledge without any change in information. Field work is the laboratory of any social science research. To know the local culture, skills, problems, traditions, means and resources, direct observation, questioning, probing and analysis of researcher plays vital role, and field work study helps to do so. It believes without internalization of local behavior, traditions, diversity and integrity no study can be done scientifically. That’s why, researcher collects facts, data and information by observing the existing trends. This method was started from early 19th century.
“Fieldwork is a study of people & their culture in their natural situation.” –Godde & Hatt
“Fieldwork is the investigation of real life situation through observation & informal or unstructured interviewing.” – Collins Dictionary of Sociology
This is primary data collection method. Researcher visits the targeted field/place and analyses the social, cultural, educational, psychological behavior of local people in their natural settings. This validates the findings of research & ease to generalize the findings.

Characteristics of Field Work:
-          Study of real life situation
-          Applies scientific method
-          Study of certain field/area
-          Useful to hypothesis formation & testing
-          Collection of actual facts/data
-          Long-term living in the field
-          Holistic approach

Preparation of Field Work:
Field work study takes long time, that’s why preparation requires for reducing problems in the field. This can be presented as follow:
a)      Intellectual Preparation
a.       Theoretical preparation
b.      Study of research design
c.       Study of literature review
d.      Knowledge on targeted field study aspects
e.      Consultation with related scholars
f.        Trainings to assistants
b)      Psychological Preparation
a.       Building self-confidence
b.      Capacity to adoption on local environment
c.       Determination to internalize local culture and trends
d.      Development of courage & patience
e.      Development of fair treatment behavior
c)       Methodological Preparation
a.       Creation of research design
b.      Selection of study method
c.       Sample selection
d.      Fixation of study area/field
d)      Physical Preparation
a.       Management of food, shelter, clothes, medicines and camera
b.      Management of stationery materials
c.       Other physical preparation according to climate/season
d.      Preparation for assistants

Field Work Methods
a)      Participation in Field Work
The importance of participation of researcher in local people’s activities in research process validates findings. Here participation applies for both side researcher and respondents/informants. Researcher needs to be a part of peoples’ activities and people should be participated in researchers’ activities/programs.
Due to the failure of Top-down approach in 1960s and Modernization increased gap between rich and poor, bottom-up approach took place. In 1970s fieldwork study emerged as suitable method to study real nature of rural society. Participation of both sides is the major component of this method. That helped to collect qualitative and quantitative data in real scenario. This method takes people as experts for their lifestyle, and the researcher as outsider or facilitator. Participation of backward, marginalized, deprived, Dalit is prioritized from equity point of view.
It is one of the valid and scientific study in social science research because of data collection through participation and easy generalization.

b)      Field-Survey Method
This method applies many tools and techniques such as questionnaire, interview and observation for the collection of qualitative data mostly. Survey is made up of two French words ‘Sor’ & ‘Veeier’ which means to see from over. The literal meaning of survey is to take a look over something from a high place. In this process, informants were critically analyzed because to verify certain moment, situation and phenomena.
This is an authorized observation of the phenomena in natural state for the collection of scientific & actual data. After the conformation of subject matter and field for research, researcher gets ready for instruments to know the scenario of the concerned area. First of all knowing what kinds of tools and techniques could be used in the study area, is called pre-survey. This tests the possibility for whole survey. Selection of correct tools and techniques including capable human resource plays vital role in validity of findings. So, pre-survey is necessary in this method.
Managing language translator, if needed, and qualitative and quantitative fixation of everything makes the whole survey easier. In case of rural area, it covers wide area and collects scientific data, this contributes for the solution of rural problems. This is one of the major method to study rural society and its nature.

Social Immersion and Rapport Building
Data is anything that helps to researcher that can be taken out from informants/respondents. So, the nature of data and its validity firstly depends on them. That’s why rapport building and social immersion building plays vital role in whole research process. Social immersion or rapport building means extending or establishing mutual, interdependent relation with the people. Researcher should be a fair member of their group, trusting them & making them to trust upon outsider is rapport building. This increases the chance of getting eternal information of the study area. Adopting their culture, helping them in needs, sharing suitable opinions makes the relation stronger. Having even informal relation with them increases the chance of getting core data. And the valid, scientific data is the soul of whole research.

Qualities of a Researcher with respect to Rapport Building:
-          Should be helpful & realistic
-          Should be open and liberal
-          Should have communication skill
-          Should present the objectives of study
-          Should have local knowledge
-          Should be neutral
-          Should be creative and sensitive
-          Should participate in local culture, religion and phenomena
Importance of Rapport Building
-          Mutual relation with all members
-          To know local needs
-          To reduce confusion & suspicion
-          To analyze every aspects clearly
-          For help in need
-          To make research valid, credible and objective-oriented
-          Qualitative and quantitative data collection

Rapid Rural Appraisal & Participatory Rural Appraisal (RRA/PRA)
After the problem identification social research requires data. For this purpose primary data collection is also used. For the collection of primary data RRA/PRA is mostly used methods. PRA is the changing method of RRA.
Rapid Rural Appraisal:
Large scale investment, promotion of technology and information were considered keys to economic development of developing countries during 1950s and 60s. Lack of capital investment and technology are taken as the factor for underdevelopment. Then in 1970s green revolution started to provide economic and technical assistance by developed to underdeveloped countries. That failed. In this course development activities & scholars knew about the indispensable relation between social, cultural, economic and environmental aspects in rural society. After this they started holistic & multi-dimensional development process.
This thought emerged Integrated Development Approach during 1970s. This focused on local means and resources mobilization for community development, which contributed for the emergence of RRA. In this method, research groups are fixed in center and they visit field area. There, they form different kinds of focus groups. They select key informants and collect required data and information from them. And conclude the gained data/information.
RRA focuses on the implementation of local plan by outsider on the basis of gained skill/knowledge. Working system was prioritized than public participation. Outsider play active and vital role in RRA. Previously RRA is considered as only information gaining process in which local people don’t play active role in implementation, they are as consumer. But now this concept has changed, their participation in all phase is important. Due to the lack of people’s participation in development activities almost every plan couldn’t achieve pre-determined objectives & they were unsustainable. This formerly emerged as rapid method for knowing local knowledge, skill and capacity. To promote the relation between development activities & local people PRA was developed, that was ignored in RRA. Development for people not by people. Top-bottom approach.
Participatory Rural Appraisal
One of the famous proponent of this approach is Robert Chamber. This focused in empowering local people by sharing local expertise. People’s participation is compulsory in this approach. This method is managed method rather than new approach of development. This reduced the flaws that appeared in RRA. PRA emerged in the learning process of RRA. Bottom-up approach.
This approach regards outsider as facilitator rather than interventionist. They need to participate in program to identify local problems. Local people are the experts of the program that seeks implementation in their area. Participation of local people in each & every step of research & plan implementation is indispensable in this approach. PRA is identified in various names by the experts such as Rapid Assessment Procedure (RAP) Participatory Learning Method (PLM) etc. Development by people for people.

Advantages of PRA:
-          Community mobilization
-          Effective for problem analysis
-          Primacy of visual materials/methods
-          Systematized rural participation
-          Community empowerment
-          Fast and inexpensive
-          Follow-up by local leader
-          Helpful for Integrated development
-          Priority to local demands
Application of PRA:
-          To mobilize local resources
-          For community mobilization
-          Solution to local problems
-          Empowerment
-          Income generating activities

Procedures of PRA:
-          Site selection
-          Preliminary visits
-          Data collection
-          Data synthesis & analysis
-          Ranking of problems
-          Ranking of opportunities
-          Adopting village resource management plan (VMP)
-          Implementation
Considering factors while conducting the PRA:
-          Participation of all
-          Speak less, listen more
-          Open questions (close if needed)
-          Understandable relevant questions
-          One by one discussion (noting and listing of information)
-          No repetition, clear questioning at first
-          Priority to women & backward
-          Respect to all; physically & mentally

Methods of PRA
-          Social map & resource map
-          Seasonal calendar
-          Wealth ranking
-          Priority determination
-          Mobility map
-          Focus group discussion (FGD)
-          Pie-chart

Observation method
One of the major tools for gaining scientific data in research is observation. It helps to know cause & effect relation of social problems.
P.V. Young: “Observation may be defined as systematic viewing compelled with consideration of seen phenomena.”
Concise Oxford Dictionary: “Accurate watching, nothing of phenomena as they occur in nature I with regard to cause and effect and mutual relationship.”
Joahn Galtung: “Observation is recording of all form of sense perception.”
C.A. Moser: “In the strict sense observation implies the use of the eyes rather than of the ears and voices.”
In a conclusion, observation is direct and primary insight into the cause and effect relationship between social phenomena.

Characteristics of Observation:
-          Eye affair
-          Direct method to study
-          Cause and effect relationship
-          Intensive study
-          Collection of primary data

Participant Observation
One of the data collection method typically applied in the qualitative research paradigm. It is a widely used methodology in many disciplines, particularly cultural anthropology. In this method researcher him/herself involves in the field area and analyses the phenomena. It has high validity and credibility.

Preparation of Field Report
Whole research process will be useless without field report preparation or presentation. Managed, short, simple, suitable and meaningful conclusive analysis of facts and data is field report. The purpose of field report is to deliver contextual, scientific reasoning and solution to the social problem. There requires systematic methods and procedures. And the suitability of report also depends on the writer and his internal understandings.

Report Writing Format
Standard Model that is used by UNs personnel;
A)     Primary Part
1.       Title
2.       Acknowledgement
3.       Table of content
4.       Abstract (Summary)
B)      Main Body
1.       Introduction
2.       Objective
3.       Literature Review (Critiques on contextual past studies)
4.       Method/Methodology/Procedures
5.       Data Presentation/Result
6.       Conclusion
7.       Recommendations
C)      Last Part
1.       References/Bibliography
2.       Appendices (Maps, charts, terminologies)
3.       Numbering & Structure
4.       Objectives of report writing

How to Write a Good Report?
-          Simple, clear language writing
-          No use of double-meaning words/phrases
-          Certainty on data ranking
-          Logical analysis and presentation of content
-          Organized topics and bulleting
-          Specific, short and conclusive
-          Readers’ oriented
-          Use of relevant graphs, charts and photos


Application of Sociological Knowledge
·         Population and Health
·         Forestry and Bio-diversity Conservation
·         Education and Employment
·         Girls Trafficking
·         Child Labor
·         Gender Equality
·         Ethnicity, Ethnic Diversity and National Integration

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English-Nepali ukhan (Proverbs)

A bad workman quarrels with his tools — nachna jandaina aagan tedo Black stone will never grow white — kaglai nuhaudaima bakulla hudaina A burnt child dreads the fire — agultale haneko kukur bujuli chamkada tarsanxa A figure among cyphers/A drop in the ocean — hattiko mukhma jira/latako deshma gado tanneri After death the doctor arrived — hagi sakyo dailo dekhyo A honey tongue, a heart of gull/A wolf sheep’s clothing — mukhma ram ram bagalima chhura A little knowledge is dangerous — apla vidhya khatarnak An empty vessel sound/dances much — namachhine ping ko saya jhaddka A rotten apple injures its companions — euta kuhiyeko aalule bora nai sakhap parxa As the king so are the subjects/as you sow, so you reap — jasto raja ustai praja/jasto ropyo ustai falxa A word to the wise is enough — murkhalai saya korra bujhne lai ek kura Barking dogs seldom bite — vukne kukurle tokdaina Beads along the neck and the devil in the heart — mukhma ram ram bagali ma chhura

के हो सुनौला हजार दिन ?

कुपोषण हटाउने उद्देश्यले गर्भवती र दुई वर्षमुनिका बच्चाहरूलाई लक्षित गरी युएसएआइडीको लगानीमा ६ वर्षदेखि यो कार्यक्रम सञ्चालनमा छ । सुरुमा सेभ द चिल्ड्रेनअन्तर्गत सञ्चालनमा रहेको यो कार्यक्रम अहिले हेलेन केलर इन्टरनेसनलले सञ्चालन गरिरहेको छ । गर्भावस्थाको ९ महिना अर्थात् २ सय ७० दिन र बच्चा जन्मेको २ वर्ष अर्थात् ७ सय ३० दिनको अवधिलाई सुनौलो हजार दिन (आमा र बच्चाको गोल्डेन डे) भनिन्छ । युएसएआइडीले पहिलो कार्यक्रममा सेभ द चिल्ड्रेनमार्फत दोलखाको ग्रामीण विकास टुकी संघसँग समन्वय गरी सञ्चालन गरेको थियो भने अहिले स्थानीय संस्था टुकी संघ नै रहने गरी हेलेन केलर इन्टरनेसनलमार्फत दोलखामा सञ्चालन गरिरहेको छ । अन्य केही जिल्लामा भने विश्व बैंकको सहयोगमा स्थानीय विकास मन्त्रालयमार्फत पनि सञ्चालन भइरहेको छ ।